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Help For SAD

Acupuncture and Seasonal Affective

Acupuncture is known to be one of the cures to combat symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. SAD affects millions of Americans a year and can turn a once productive person to a tired and depressed individual. Although, SAD has various symptoms, probably the most common is depression. And, acupuncture has been shown to work great when treating symptoms of depression.

 Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is related to the change in seasons and tends to begin and end around the same time each year for those affected by it. SAD is a type of depression and should be taken seriously.

Here are some of the symptoms of SAD to look out for: 

•Having low energy

•Feeling sluggish or agitated

•Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every day
•Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
•Experiencing changes in your appetite or weight
•Having problems sleeping
•Having difficulty concentrating
•Having frequent thoughts of death or suicide
•Feeling hopeless, worthless or guilty


A study published by the National Institute of Health looked at the management options for treating depression. Depression is one of the most prevalent symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. This study was conducted by the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments.

They looked at multiple complementary and alternative methods for treating depression, including light therapy, acupuncture, exercise, yoga and natural health supplements like Omega 3 fatty acids and St. John’s Wort. The study concluded acupuncture is most commonly used as a third line of treatment for those seeking alternative methods to deal with depression, despite the fact it tends to be very effective.

Researchers recognize acupuncture does provide benefits to treating depression, but more work must be done to truly realize the full capacity of those benefits.


GV 20

There is a point located on the top of the head, midway between the apexes of your ears. This point is known as governing vessel 20 (GV 20). GV 20 is one of the most powerful points in the acupuncturists’ arsenal. It raises emotional energy, which in turn can help alleviate depression.  Applying pressure or lightly tapping this point is a great way to counter depression on your own and it can be done pretty much anywhere.

LV 3

Liver 3 (LV 3) is located on the top of the foot between the big toe and the second toe, where the metatarsal bones meet. Stimulating this point helps stagnant blood to move freely again.  Imagine a beaver dam on a river. If there is a lot of debris built up against the beaver dam, then the river can’t flow freely. This same analogy can be used when describing what happens to blood flow in the body. When the blood flow becomes stagnant and minute, then depression can set in because the body isn’t getting the proper nutrients it needs to function. In Chinese medicine theory, stagnant blood flow can lead to depression. Liver 3 is used frequently in traditional Chinese medicine treatments to re-establish the flow of blood throughout the body.

HT 3

Heart 3 (HT 3) is located on the inside of the elbow. When the elbow is flexed, the point is midway between the inner end of the elbow crease and the tip of the elbow bone itself.  In traditional Chinese medicine, the heart meridian is often treated when depression is a presenting complaint. Depression causes the heart meridian to become deficient in energy. HT 3 stimulates the energy needed to combat depression symptoms.

Easy Immune Boosting Recipes

Click On The Picture Below For A Few Easy To Prepare Immune Boosting Recipes

Healthy & Delicious Sweet Potato Dish

Sweet Potato And Pecan Casserole

This recipe was inspired by a patient late last year. She suggested that fruit mixed with sweet potato is a delicious variation on the typical marshmallow sweet potato American holiday staple. It has become a favorite with guests at my house. I'm sure you will love this nutrient dense dish I created.

4 large organic and local sweet potatoes
1/2 cup pecans
2 rounded tablespoons of organic apricot preserves
1 pinch of cinnamon
Celtic sea salt to taste
1 tablespoon maple syrup
1 teaspoon organic ghee or coconut oil to coat pecans and 2 tbs to mix into sweet potato
1 prepared graham cracker crust or homemade

Bake sweet potatoes at 350 degrees until tender (about one hour). Mix maple syrup with melted ghee or coconut oil and coat pecans and set aside. Peel and mash sweet potatoes, add cinnamon, salt, apricot preserve, and 2 tablespoons ghee or fat of choice. Prepare graham cracker crust according to directions on the box. I use Pamela's gluten free cinnamon graham crackers to make a crust. Fill crust with the sweet potato mixture and arrange pecans on top. Bake for 20 minutes at 350 degrees. Enjoy!

Nutritional Content:

1/2 cup of pecans has (DV):
Saturated Fat 3.337g 17%
Polyunsaturated Fat 11.672g
Monounsaturated Fat 22.033g
Cholesterol 0mg
Sodium 0mg
Total Carbohydrate 7.48g 3%
Dietary Fiber 5.2g 19%
Sugars 2.14g
Protein 4.95g
Calcium 38mg 3%
Iron 1.37mg 8%
Potassium 221mg 5%
Vitamin A 2mcg 0%
Vitamin C 0.6mg 1%
1 medium sweet potato (DV):
Sodium 41mg 2%
Total Carbohydrate 23.6g 8%
Dietary Fiber 3.8g 15%
Total Sugars 7.4g 15%
Protein 2.3g 5%
Vitamin C 22.3mg 25%
Iron 0.8mg 4%
Calcium 43.3mg 3%
Potassium 541.5mg 12%
Phosphorus 61.6mg 5%
2 tablespoons apricot preserves:
Carbs 24 g
Sugar 14 g
Sodium 16 mg
Potassium 30 mg
Vitamin A 2 %
Vitamin C 6 %
Iron 2 %

Kick Pain To The Curb

Research Update – Acupuncture for Pain Management

Multiple studies have shown acupuncture can be very effective at managing pain. But a study performed by Albrecht et al, is probably one of the most frequently referenced studies. The researchers studied the effects of acupuncture on 424 patients who suffered with chronic shoulder pain. The analysis of the results showed acupuncture as an effective treatment, the participants reported decreased pain and increased range of motion and that it was even superior to the results achieved using conservative orthopedic treatments. This, as well as many other studies, show hope for the future of acupuncture becoming mainstream medicine in the battle against pain.

Pain. Who hasn’t dealt with it? It is so common in the United States that it affects more people than diabetes, heart disease and cancer combined. Pain is the most common reason people go to see their doctor and also why we are currently experiencing an unprecedented opioid epidemic. Chronic pain is the most common cause of long-term disability according to the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately one in every four Americans have suffered from pain that exceeds 24 hours. The type of pain and location of the pain will determine how it is treated when you go to see your doctor. And typically, the doctor will prescribe over-the-counter or prescription pain medications and they may also order more tests to determine if there is something more serious going on.        


This is where acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine can work in conjunction with your primary care physician. Multiple studies have shown acupuncture can be quite effective at treating pain, both acute and chronic. In fact, the Food and Drug Administration is now urging doctors to obtain information about alternative treatment methods like acupuncture and chiropractic care. This came about in response to the opioid crisis occurring in the U.S. and killing thousands of people, including the rich and famous.

Since acupuncture has no real adverse side effects when performed by a qualified and professionally licensed practitioner, pain relief can begin the very first time a patient is treated.

Acupuncture treatments are very customizable because as a medicine, it’s not a “one size fits all” type of solution. This means that as the pain shifts and changes, the patient will receive customized treatments that not only address the pain and inflammation, but also work on resolving the root of the problem. Most patients who are dealing with pain also have added stress, insomnia and depression or anxiety. Acupuncture is great at treating all of these conditions. So the patient gets more than just pain relief.


The stimulation of acupuncture points triggers the brain to release endorphins, which are painkilling chemicals that saturate the brain and decrease pain signals, both short-term and long-term. Acupuncture is so effective at treating and relieving pain it is now showing up in hospitals and emergency rooms. In fact, Abbott Northwestern Hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota is now successfully using acupuncture in its emergency room to treat conditions ranging from car accident injuries to kidney stones. Their initial results show that pain scores are just as low with acupuncture as they are with those given analgesic painkillers.

With these kinds of recommendations, it is hard to believe only about 10 percent of Americans have ever tried acupuncture. But that statistic is slowly changing as more and more people are seeking natural and alternative methods of dealing with pain and disease. If you suffer from pain of any kind, give us a call so we can give you the relief you’ve been seeking.


Research: Acupuncture And Your Immune System

Traditional Chinese Medicine Helps Your Immune System

A study published by the National Institutes of Health evaluated the efficacy of acupuncture for stimulating or regulating the immune system by comparing the results from several studies that each used different methods of acupuncture. Through the use of electroacupuncture, moxibustion, herbs, and acupuncture, the studies concluded Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, can be helpful for the immune system. The combined studies demonstrated that moxibustion helped repair the gut mucosa of rats suffering from ulcerative colitis, electroacupuncture can increase the number of T cells in the body and that general acupuncture can decrease inflammation, which plays a vital role in the immune system.

Your immune system is what keeps you healthy and helps you ward off pathogens like the flu or a cold. Most of us don’t spend a lot of time worrying about our immune system until we’re sick. Then we reach for the over-the-counter medications to help relieve our symptoms. By looking to TCM instead, we can be proactive about supporting our immune systems in a safe and natural way.

According to TCM, the body is protected by something known as the Wei Qi (pronounced “way chee”). The Wei Qi, or Defensive Qi, is comparable to the immune system in conventional medicine. It acts as the first line of defense when the body is under attack from external pathogens. If the Wei Qi is strong, then the body is capable of fighting off bacteria and viruses. Extreme stress, lack of sleep and a poor diet can all play into how strong the body’s Wei Qi is and how well it performs.

There are multiple tools in the TCM practitioner’s toolbox that can assist in keeping the immune system strong and healthy, including acupuncture, moxibustion, electroacupuncture, herbs, cupping, and nutrition.

Each of these tools has a similar effect on the body. TCM can regulate immune function, while also treating the underlying causes of the disease. This is done by reducing the symptoms, speeding up the healing, decreasing excess phlegm, decreasing inflammation, and boosting the immune-mediated cells in the body that help ward off invasions.

Studies show regular acupuncture treatments can actually increase the number of T cells the body produces. T cells destroy harmful bacteria and viruses in the body. Acupuncture needles stimulate the brain into thinking an invader (virus or bacteria) has entered the body. The brain signals the increased release of T cells and white blood cells to fight off the intruder. The amazing part is the increased cellular response lasts for several days after the acupuncture treatment. Thus, receiving regular acupuncture treatments can actually prevent the body from getting sick.

Proof That Acupuncture Relieves Migraines

Acupuncture- the original biohack for... migraines!

Having recurring migraines is a common yet treatable debilitating dis-ease. When they go from being annoying to actively disruptive, there is often little one can do but grit your teeth and persevere. The helpful suggestions for managing this occurrence involved a mixture of expert opinion, anecdotal hearsay, individual tinkering and a big dose of patience. So where does acupuncture fit into this picture?

We'll start with expert opinion. Consider a 2013 systematic review that compared actual and placebo effects of several interventions for the treatment of migraines (1). The study showed  that sham acupuncture had a stronger placebo effect than the oral pharmacological placebo, and furthermore the placebo effect of acupuncture was shown to be as strong as the true, active-drug treatment. So the research currently suggests even if one were to receive only the placebo benefit of acupuncture, it may still be as effective as taking a pharmaceutical for the treatment of migraines.

That is promising research, but let's add anecdote for good measure. It is possible to stop a migraine in its tracks if one is able to see an acupuncturist during the acute stage of migraine. The release of endogenous opioids, the body's natural pain-relievers, combined with the stimulation of endorphins, can turn the worst headache into no more than a mild annoyance within that hour-long session. Acupuncture also treats nausea and vomiting, and it balances the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (2), which is implicated in migraine pathology (3).

Now for individual tinkering. Acupuncture is hyper-individualized, with each treatment responding to your body's symptoms at that exact moment, in a way specific to only you. Coming in for acupuncture during the acute stage provides the acupuncturist with valuable information about how your body is experiencing the strongest symptoms of migraine attack. This informs the treatments given afterward to prevent or reduce the severity of the next migraine. Weekly treatments downregulate stress hormones and create a more clear baseline from which to observe physiological patterns such as dietary and environmental triggers. This can help make your individual-lifestyle adjustments more effective in reducing migraines.

And finally, patience is still the key when treating migraines. Acupuncture must be used regularly for an individually determined period of time in order for its full benefit to become apparent. In the same way that eating one kale leaf will not make one a beacon of health, neither will having just one acupuncture treatment. The goal is to set up and then reinforce a pattern of signaling in the body that is closer to the “rest and digest” mode of existence and further away from the “fight and flight” mode that governs our modern lives. Each acupuncture treatment helps reinforce the beneficial relaxing mode that reduces the prevalence of migraines.

1)Meissner, K, et. al. Differential effectiveness of placebo treatments: a systematic review of migraine prophylaxis. JAMA Internal medicine. 2013 Nov 25;173(21):1941-51.

2) Wang, S-J, Zhang, J-J, and Qie, L-L. Acupuncture relieves the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis function and correlates with the regulatory mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR. Evidence based complementary and alternative medicine. 2014; 2014.

3)Tietjen, G. and Peterlin, B. Childhood abuse and migraine: epidemiology, sex differences, and possible mechanisms. Headache. 2011 Jun: 51(6):869-879. 

Supplements To Help Prevent And Treat Virus 2020

Hello and I hope you are staying calm and healthy during this COVID 19 pandemic. I have been keeping the clinic open to patients while maintaining a clean environment for all of our safety. Please don't worry about us having a full waiting room as we will not have more than 2 people in one place at a time. Please reschedule your appointment if you have a cough, fever or other concerns about being contagious.

Thank you for your understanding and support. I am sharing a wonderful article by some amazing doctors with a few supplements that can help prevent and if necessary help treat COVID 19. These supplements can be purchased from the shopping link on my website at 10% off (WELLEVATE) ORDER HERBS HERE.

Integrative Considerations during the COVID-19 pandemic         March 18, 2020
There is a high level of interest in integrative strategies to augment public health measures to prevent COVID-19 infection and associated pneumonia. Unfortunately, no integrative measures have been validated in human trials. Notwithstanding, this is an opportune time to be proactive. Using available in-vitro evidence, an understanding of the virulence of COVID-19, as well as data from similar, but different, viruses, we offer the following strategies to consider. Again, we stress that these are supplemental considerations to the current recommendations
that emphasize regular hand washing, social distancing, stopping non-essential travel, and getting tested if you develop symptoms.
While the pathogenicity of COVID-19 is complex, it is important to understand the role of inflammation in this disease. The virulence and pathogenicity (including acute respiratory distress syndrome) associated with SARS corona viruses develops as the result of viral activation of cytoplasmic NLRP3 inflammasome. This inflammasome within activated (upregulated NFkB) macrophages and Th1 immune cells releases proinflammatory cytokines, namely IL-1B and IL-18, which dictate the pathogenic inflammation responsible for the virulence and symptoms of COVID-19.1 Understanding this component of COVID-19 infection provides a mechanistic
underpinning to several of the following.
• Adequate sleep: Shorter sleep duration increases the risk of infectious illness. One study found that less than 5 hours of sleep (monitored over 7 consecutive days) increased the risk of developing rhinovirus associated cold by 350% (odds ratio [OR] = 4.50, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-18.69) when compared to individuals who slept at least 7 hours per night.2 Important to COVID-19, sleep deprivation increases CXCL9 levels. CXCL9 is a monokine, induced by interferon, and which increases lymphocytic infiltration,3 and which is implicated in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. 4 Adequate sleep also ensures the secretion of melatonin, a molecule which may play a role in reducing coronavirus virulence (see Melatonin below).
• Stress management: Psychological stress disrupts immune regulation and is specifically associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-65. Acute stress in mice increases IL-1B via NLRP3 inflammasome activation.6 Various mindfulness techniques such as meditation, breathing exercises, guided imagery, etc. reduce stress, reduce activated NFkB, may reduce CRP and do not appear to increase inflammatory cytokines.7•

Zinc: Coronavirus appear to be susceptible to the viral inhibitory actions of zinc. Zinc
may prevent coronavirus entry into cells8 and appears to reduce coronavirus virulence.9
Typical daily dosing of zinc is 15mg – 30mg daily with lozenges potentially providing
direct protective effects in the upper respiratory tract.
• Vegetables and Fruits +/- isolated Flavonoids: Many flavonoids have been found, in
vitro, to reduce NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, and consequently NFkB, TNF-a, IL-6, IL1B and IL-18 expression.10 Some of the specific flavonoids which have been shown to have this effect, and which can be found in the diet and/or dietary supplements include:
o baicalin11 and wogonoside12 from Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap);
o liquiritigenin13 from Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice)
o dihydroquercetin14 and quercetin15 found in onions and apples
o myricetin16 found in tomatoes, organs, nuts, and berries
o apigenin17 (found in Matricaria recutita (Chamomile), parsley and celery.
At least 5 – 7 servings of vegetables and 2-3 servings of fruit daily provide a repository of
flavonoids and are considered a cornerstone of an anti-inflammatory diet.
• Vitamin C: Like flavonoids, ascorbic acid inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation.18
Clinical trials have found that vitamin C shortens the frequency, duration and severity of the common cold and the incidence of pneumonia.19 Typical daily dosing of vitamin C ranges from 500mg to 3000mg daily with even higher doses utilized during times of acute infection.
• Melatonin: Melatonin has been shown to inhibit NFkB activation and NLRP3
inflammasome activation.20 In fact, the age-related decline in melatonin production is one proposed mechanism to explain why children do not appear to have severe
symptoms and older adults do. Melatonin also reduces oxidative lung injury and
inflammatory cell recruitment during viral infections.21 Typical dosing of melatonin
varies widely from 0.3mg to 20mg (the latter used in the oncological setting).
• Sambucus nigra (Elderberry): There is preclinical evidence that elderberry inhibits
replication and viral attachment of Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)22, different than COVID-19, but a member of the coronavirus family. Sambucus appears most effective in the prevention or early stage of corona virus infections.23 Of note, Sambucus significantly increases inflammatory cytokines, including IL-B124 so should be discontinued with symptoms of infection (or positive test). An evidence-based systematic review of elderberry conducted by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration concluded that there is level B evidence to support the use of elderberry for influenza25 which may or may not be applicable to COVID-19 prevention. Typical dosing of 2:1 elderberry extract is 10mL -60mL daily for adults and 5mL-30mL daily for children.
• Vitamin D: In certain conditions, vitamin D has been found to decrease NLRP3
inflamasome activation26 and vitamin D receptor activation reduces IL-1b secretion.27
However, 1,25(OH)vitamin D has also been found to increase IL-1b levels,28,29 and
should, therefore, be used with caution and perhaps discontinued with symptoms of
To Avoid: Given the integral role of inflammatory cytokines (namely IL-1B and IL-18) in the pathogenicity of COVID-19, as well as the impossibility of predicting which individuals are susceptible to the “cytokine storm”, technically called secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, or sHLH, it appears to be prudent to avoid high and regular use of immunostimulatory agents which increase these cytokines. Again, in the absence of human clinical data, caution is warranted with the following immune activating agents due to preclinical evidence of increased IL-1B and/or IL-18 production in infected immune cells:
! Sambucus nigra (Elderberry)30
! Polysaccharide extracts from medicinal mushrooms31,32
! Echinacea angustifolia and E. purpurea33,34
! Larch arabinogalactan35
! Vitamin D36,37
Likely Safe: Other commonly used natural immunostimulatory and antiviral agents including the following do not appear to increase IL-1B or IL-18 as a part of their immunomodulatory actions. Several of these, in fact, reduce these cytokines and may restore immune homeostasis. These are, therefore, likely safe to use both prior to, and during, COVID-19 infection. Whether these agents mitigate the symptoms or virulence of COVID-19 is unknown and therefore the benefit of these agents during COVID-19 infection is unknown.
• Allium sativum (garlic)38
• Quercetin39
• Astragalus membranaceus40,41
• Full mycelium mushroom extracts4243
• Mentha piperita (peppermint)44
• Andrographis paniculata45
• Zinc46
• Vitamin A47 [note: This study found that 25,000iu daily for 4 months in 84 women
resulted in lower serum IL-1b and IL-1b/IL-4 ratios in obese women. Oral vitamin A can causes hypervitaminosis A especially at doses greater than 25,000 IU daily for more than 6 years or 100,000iu daily for more than 6 months.48 Monitoring liver function tests for hepatotoxicity during vitamin A dosing of any duration, even at lower doses, is advised given variable individual sensitivity.]
• Vitamin C49
The information and understanding of COVID-19 continues to change rapidly. We encourage you to make integrative recommendations carefully and with consideration of the underlying mechanisms of both the COVID-19 infection and the intended intervention. It is also important to reiterate that there are no clinically evidence-based integrative prevention or treatment strategies for COVID-19 infection.
Lise Alschuler ND
Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine
Assistant Director, Fellowship in Integrative Medicine, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine
Reviewed by:
Ann Marie Chiasson MD
Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine
Director, Fellowship in Integrative Medicine, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine
Robert Crocker MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine
Director, Strategic and Clinical Planning and Implementation, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine3
Randy Horwitz MD PhD FACP
Professor of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine
Medical Director, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine
Victoria Maizes MD
Professor of Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Arizona
Andrew Weil Endowed Chair in Integrative Medicine
Executive Director, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine
Paul Stamets
Andrew Weil MD
Professor of Medicine and Public Health, University of Arizona
Endowed Chair in Integrative Rheumatology, University of Arizona
Founder, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine
For media inquiries please contact Keith LaBaw, AWCIM Marketing Manager,
1 Chen, I-Y, et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Viroporin 3a Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome. Front Microbiol. 2019;10:50.
2 Prather AA, et al. Behaviorally Assessed Sleep and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. Sleep. 2015;38(9):1353-9.
3 Gorbachev AV, et al. CXC chemokine ligand 9/monokine induced by IFN-gamma production by tumor cells is critical for T cell-mediated suppression of cutaneous tumors. J Immunol. 2007;178:2278–2286.
4 Romero, JM, et al. A Four-Chemokine Signature Is Associated With a T-cell-Inflamed Phenotype in Primary and Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2020 Jan 21 [online ahead of print]
5 Godbout JP, Glaser R. Stress-induced Immune Dysregulation: Implications for Wound Healing, Infectious Disease and Cancer. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2006;1(4):421.
6 Iwata M, et al. Psychological Stress Activates the Inflammasome via Release of Adenosine Triphosphate and Stimulation of the Purinergic Type 2X7 Receptor. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80(1):12.
7 Black D and Slavich GM. Mindfulness meditation and the immune system: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2016;1373(1):13.
8 Phillips JM, et al. Neurovirulent Murine Coronavirus JHM.SD Uses Cellular Zinc Metalloproteases for Virus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion. J Virol. 2017;91(8).
9 Han Y-S, et al. Papain-like Protease 2 (PLP2) From Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV): Expression, Purification, Characterization, and Inhibition. Biochemistry. 2005;44(30):10349.
10 Lim H, et al. Flavonoids Interfere with NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018;355:93.
11 Fu S, et al. Baicalin Suppresses NLRP3 Inflammasome and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Signaling During Haemophilus Parasuis Infection. Vet Res. 2016;47(1):80.
12 Sun Y, et al. Wogonoside Protects Against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Experimental Colitis in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation. Biochm Pharmacol. 2015;94(2):142.13 Zhu X, et al. Liquiritigenin Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Mesangial Matrix Accumulation, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation by Suppression of the NF-κB and NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathways. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;106:976.
14 Ding T, et al. Kidney Protection Effects of Dihydroquercetin on Diabetic Nephropathy Through Suppressing ROS and NLRP3 Inflammasome. Phytomedicine. 2018(41):45.
15 Choe J-Y, et al. Quercetin and Ascorbic Acid Suppress Fructose-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Blocking Intracellular Shuttling of TXNIP in Human Macrophage Cell Lines. Inflammation. 2017;40(3):980.
16 Chen H, et al. Myricetin Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via Reduction of ROS-dependent Ubiquitination of ASC and Promotion of ROS-independent NLRP3 Ubiquitination. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019;365:19.
17 Yamagata K, et al. Dietary Apigenin Reduces Induction of LOX-1 and NLRP3 Expression, Leukocyte Adhesion, and Acetylated Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake in Human Endothelial Cells Exposed to Trimethylamine-N-Oxide. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2019;74(6):558.
18 Choe J-Y, et al. Quercetin and Ascorbic Acid Suppress Fructose-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Blocking Intracellular Shuttling of TXNIP in Human Macrophage Cell Lines. Inflammation. 2017;40(3):980.
19 Hemila, H. Vitamin C Supplementation and Respiratory Infections: A Systematic Review. Mil Med. 2004;169(11):90.
20 Hardeland, R. Melatonin and inflammation – Story of a Double-Edged Blade. J Pineal Res. 2018;65(4):e12525.
21 Silvestri M and Rossi GA. Melatonin: its possible role in the management of viral infections – a brief review. Ital J Pediatr. 2013;39:61.
22 Weng J-R, et al. Antiviral Activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai Ethanol Extract and Related Phenolic Acid Constituents Against Human Coronavirus NL63. Virus Res. 2019;273:197767.
23 Chen C, et al. Sambucus Nigra Extracts Inhibit Infectious Bronchitis Virus at an Early Point During Replication. BMC Vet Res. 2014:10:24.
24 Barak V, et al. The Effect of Sambucol, a Black Elderberry-Based, Natural Product, on the Production of Human Cytokines: I. Inflammatory Cytokines. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001;12(2):290.
25 Ulbricht C, et al. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Elderberry and Elderflower (Sambucus nigra) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Dietary Suppl. 2014;11(1):80.
26 Lu L, et al. Vitamin D 3 Protects Against Diabetic Retinopathy by Inhibiting High-Glucose-Induced Activation of the ROS/TXNIP/NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway. J Diabetes Res. 2018:8193523.
27 Rao Z, et al. Vitamin D Receptor Inhibits NLRP3 Activation by Impeding Its BRCC3-Mediated Deubiquitination. Front Immunol. 2019;10:2783.
28 Verway M, et al. Vitamin D Induces interleukin-1β Expression: Paracrine Macrophage Epithelial Signaling Controls M. Tuberculosis Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(6):e1003407.
29 Tulk SE, et al. Vitamin D₃ Metabolites Enhance the NLRP3-dependent Secretion of IL-1β From Human THP-1 Monocytic Cells. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116(5):711.
30 Barak V, et al. The Effect of Sambucol, a Black Elderberry-Based, Natural Product, on the Production of Human Cytokines: I. Inflammatory Cytokines. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001;12(2):290.
31 Yang Y, et al. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces IL-1β via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Innate Immun. 2014;20(8):857.
32 Ma XL, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of macromolecular polysaccharide isolated from Grifola frondosa. Chin J Nat Med. 2015;13(12):906.
33 Burger RA, et al. Echinacea-induced Cytokine Production by Human Macrophages. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1997;19(7):371.
34 Senchina DS, et al. Human Blood Mononuclear Cell in Vitro Cytokine Response Before and After Two Different Strenuous Exercise Bouts in the Presence of Bloodroot and Echinacea Extracts. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2009;43(3):298.
35 Hauer J, Anderer FA. Mechanism of Stimulation of Human Natural Killer Cytotoxicity by Arabinogalactan From Larix Occidentalis. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1993;36(4):237.
36 Verway M, et al. Vitamin D Induces interleukin-1β Expression: Paracrine Macrophage Epithelial Signaling Controls M. Tuberculosis Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(6):e1003407.
37 Tulk SE, et al. Vitamin D₃ Metabolites Enhance the NLRP3-dependent Secretion of IL-1β From Human THP-1 Monocytic Cells. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116(5):711.
38 Arreola R, et al. Immunodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:401630.
39 Mlcek J, et al. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response. Molecules. 2016;21(5):623.
40 He, X, et al. Inhibitory Effect of Astragalus Polysaccharides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TNF-a and IL-1β
Production in THP-1 Cells. Molecules. 2012; 17(3): 3155.
41 Li H, et al. Astragaloside Inhibits IL-1β-induced Inflammatory Response in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes
and Ameliorates the Progression of Osteoarthritis in Mice Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2019;421(4):497.
42 Ulbricht C, et al. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Elderberry and Elderflower (Sambucus Nigra) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Diet Suppl. 2014;11(1):80.
43 Benson KF, The mycelium of the Trametes versicolor (Turkey tail) mushroom and its fermented substrate each show potent and complementary immune activating properties in vitro. MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2019;19:342.
44 Li Y, et al. In Vitro Antiviral, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Mentha piperita L. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2017;26(6):1675.
45 Chandrasekaran CV, et al. In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Non-Leaves and Leaves Extracts of Andrographis
Paniculata on Modulation of Inflammatory Mediators. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2012;11(2):191.
46 Han Y-S, et al. Papain-like Protease 2 (PLP2) From Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV):
Expression, Purification, Characterization, and Inhibition. Biochemistry. 2005;44(30):10349.
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